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About Russia



According to the data provided by the Federal State Statistics Service, the population of Russia as of January 1 2018 the population was 146.8 million people. In terms of the population, the Russian Federation occupies the 9th place in the world. Two percent of the world's population live in Russia.

The majority of the population is concentrated in the European part of the country. Seventy four percent of the population lives in urban areas, 26% - in rural areas.

Russia is a multiethnic state. Over 160 nationalities live on its territory, the largest (80.9% of the population) being Russians. Russian is the official State language.

Orthodox Christianity is the predominant religion. Islamic, Catholic, Buddhist and other confessions are less widespread.





Russia is a democratic federal state with a republican form of government. The legislative body of the Russian Federation is the bicameral Federal Assembly (the Federation Council and the State Duma). The Council of Federation consists of representatives of each federal entity. The deputies of the State Duma are elected for a term of 5 years from party lists by proportion of the votes that each party receives nationwide.

The Head of State is the President of the Russian Federation, who is also the Supreme Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces. The President is elected by citizens of Russia by direct secret ballot for a term of 6 years. Vladimir V.Putin was elected President on March 18, 2018.

The executive power is exercised by the Government of the Russian Federation. The Chairman of the Government is appointed by the President with the consent of the State Duma. The Russian Federation consists of 85 federal entities (republics, territories and regions), including the cities of Moscow, St.Petersburg, and Sevastopol. Moscow is the capital of Russia.



Territory and climate


The total area of Russia is 6,612,075 sq. miles (17,125,200 sq. km). Over 45% of the country’s area is covered by forests, 4% - by water, 13% - by arable land, 19% - deer grazing land, 19% - other.

A large part of the European territory of the country is occupied by the East European plain; in the south it is limited by the northern slopes of the Caucasus Mountains and has the Khibin Mountains to the Northwest. To the East of the Ural mountains lies the West Siberian plain surrounded by the mountains of South Siberia (Altay, Sayanas, Baikal mountains, etc.). Between the Yenisey and Lena rivers lies the Midsiberian plateau, between the Lena and the Pacific coast spread the mountains ridges and plateaus of North-East Asia.

Russia has about 2.5 million rivers and 2 million fresh and salt water lakes. The largest rivers are Volga, North Dvina, Don, Pechora, Ob, Yrtysh, Yenisey, Angara, Lena, Amur; the largest lakes are the Caspian (Sea), Baikal, Ladoga, Onega. Russia has 35 national parks and 84 natural reserves.

The climate changes from marine on the extreme Northwest to harsh continental on Siberia and monsoon in the Far East. Average temperatures in January are from 0 C to – 50 C, in July – from +1 C to +25 C; precipitation is from 150 to 2000 mm per year. Russia has the following climatic zones: arctic desert, tundra, forest tundra, forest, forest steppe, steppe, semi desert.



Economy and consumption


Currency - rouble. 

Exchange rate


Foreign trade (U.S.$, billions)

2016 - Imports: 183.5, Exports: 287.7

2017 - Imports: 228.4, Exports: 359



Russian holidays


January 1-5 - New Year Holidays

January 7 - Orthodox Christmas

February 23 - The Motherland Defender's Day

March 8 - International Women's Day

May 1 - Spring and Labour Day

May 9 - Victory Day

June 12 - Russia Day

November 4 - National Unity Day


The New Year is first on the calendar and in popularity. Many celebrate it twice, on January 1 and 14 (which corresponds to January 1 in the Julian calendar, used in Russia before 1918.

Next is February 23 - Day, known until recently as Soviet Army Day, popularly viewed as holiday for all men and closely followed by its female counter-part, Women’s Day, March 8, when women receive flowers, presents and are toasted by men.

Mayday, until recently officially termed International Workers’ Solidarity Day, is now known as Spring and Labour Day. On some years, it occurs on or close to with Russian Orthodox Easter, so some people celebrate in church while some attend customary demonstrations.

Russia celebrates Victory Day on May 9 to commemorate the millions fallen in World War II. Flowers and wreaths are laid on wartime graves on this day, and veterans come out into the streets wearing their military orders and medals. Alas, there are fewer of them with every passing year.

June 12 is Russia’s Independence Day, which commemorates the adoption in 1991 of the Declaration of Sovereignty of the Russian Federation.

November 4 - Day of the National Unity is the newest Russian holiday.



Russian language


The Russian language is spoken by 300 million people in different countries. It is the 5th most spoken language in the world, the most geographically widespread language of Eurasia and the largest native language in Europe. Russian is a tongue of a great literary tradition and international communication in politics (it is one of the United Nations official languages), science, culture and sports. For an English speaker Russian may be challenging to learn, however it can give you the key to many treasures of world culture and enable you to communicate with millions of people for whom Russian is the native or the primary foreign language.



Russian cuisine


Russian cuisine is distinctive and unique,and as any other national one, it was formed under the influence of different environmental, social, geographical, economic and historical factors. The main feature of Russian cuisine is considered to be an abundance and variety of products used for cooking.  There are numerous dishes made of dough such as pies, cakes, rolls, blini, etc. as well as unleavened dough, including dumplings and homemade noodles. Being a country of Orthodox Christian religion which implies numerous fasts, Russian cuisine offers a great number of vegetarian dishes including mushrooms, pickles etc.  The Russian culinary palette is also rich in meat, poultry and fish dishes which are served on various  occasions.